The contents and laws of soil anthropogenous evolution

  • V. V. Medvedev National Scientific Centre «O. N. Sokolovsky Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry»
Keywords: evolution, degradation, anthropogenous transformed soils, methodology of studying and management


Long soil ploughed up are typical polygenetic formations as in their formation alongside with natural the significant role is played with anthropogenous factors. Under action of mechanical, chemical, reclamative and other kinds influences natural soils lose inherent in them a structure, properties and modes. Anisotropism, spatial heterogeneity, preferential descending and ascending streams of a moisture amplify, new types of horizontal and vertical soil structures are formed, grows the equilibrium bulk density, consolidation and quantity of false aggregates, the structure pore spaces changes, obvious braking processes of aggregation is marked, ability to convertibility of properties and modes as the basic condition of counteraction of degradation processes is lost, rhythmic of soil formation due to activization relax  processes is broken characteristic for natural soil. Significant changes occur in thin dispersed mineral and organic parts. The total humus decreases, its lability increases, is observed claying, because of increase in depth of watering and lowering of carbonates level it is locally marked acidification. As a result it is ascertained, that in conditions of unbalanced and poor-quality land tenure even simple reproduction of soil fertility is impossible, and an equilibrium (stable) condition of soil properties and modes – more likely wrongly generated on the basis of not enough long-term researches. As a result of anthropogenous evolution for rather short historical time interval the new body – anthropogenous transformed soils was generated. This fact demands reflection in soil classification and correctives in studying, management of their fertility and use. Possible scripts of the further anthropogenous soil evolution  are discussed: the degradation, a seeming balance and "reasonable" precise agriculture. Degradation (degradation) – the most probable script at preservation of modern unbalanced and poor-quality agriculture. Degradation in these conditions can gradually become the factor forming an agrisoil. A seeming balance (seeming equilibrium, balance). – the least probable script. Seeming because it is characteristic for short-term prospect, but in conditions of long scarce balance elements and excessive mechanical loading soil evolution cannot be equilibrium. Steady development - the script to which it is necessary to aspire ("reasonable" agriculture - intelligence agriculture). The script on immediate prospects – instead of the zone generalized technologies – exact agriculture (precise agriculture) in view of spatial diversity, history of a field and a stage of its anthropogenous evolution. The organization of researches is necessary for realization of the favorable script of anthropogenous soil evolution with use of modes in situ and on-line, landscape soil-ecological ranges, complex stationary experiences with application of methods of planning of experiment, use of effective methods of forecasting of soil processes and as a whole exemplary system of scientific monitoring. Uncontrolled soil use in the country should not be.


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How to Cite
Medvedev, V. (2014). The contents and laws of soil anthropogenous evolution. Fundamental and Applied Soil Science, 15(1-2), 17-32.