Mine technical stage recultivation of the broken lands and its ecological and economical evaluation
An ecological and economical aspect of restoration and organization of use of recultivated lands in agriculture are considered. It is proved that the price of the land which is withdrawn from agricultural production, consists of the price of the importance of the land as nature component, from the land price as basic method of production etc. The methodological workings out for the evaluation of the mine technical stage of land recultivation are offered. It is emphasized, that in any case recultivation of the disturbed lands should be directed on the localization and neutralization of harmful influences on the environment, and on creation of conditions for restoration of fertility of the disturbed lands, especially with use of chernozem mass which preliminary was removed from a disposal area. These are considerable expenses because losses from the agricultural lands consist of the losses from soil losses as the basic means of an agricultural production, from short-received profit in connection with deficiency of soil for restoration of the former productive area and from compensation of the lost agricultural potential. It is noticed, that in the course of carrying out of separate excavation of the fertile layer of chernozem, its transportation and placement in collars, and also application on the leveled surface of the disposal area and planning of this entire surface, the soil undergoes so-called impoverishment, that is mixing of fertile horizons with potentially fertile soils. This process is accompanied by decrease, first of all, content of humus which quantity on the average in 1.5–2 times is less, than in humus horizon of zone chernozems. Thus, the more powerfully layer of the piled mass of chernozem on the rock, so match the bigger was the content of humus which, however, never exceeds a natural indicator. For the first time in the conditions of Steppe Prydniprovia it was carried out the valuation of the basic types of artificial soils at some leading mining enterprises. For the standard is taken the average index of content of humus in not broken old arable lands in a place of creation artificial. Economic calculations have shown, that recultivated lands which have a point 40 and above (content of humus about 2 % and more), are suitable for cultivation almost all agricultural crops. The lands, that have the point from 40 to 20 – are suitable for introduction of hay harvests and hay-fields, and also wood and fruit – and – berry plantings. The lands with an ecological and economical point less than 20 should be used for creation of recreational zones, athletic fields, plots for holiday visitors in the country, forbidden lands, etc. It is affirmed, that those types of soils which have not chernozem soil cover, but are potentially fertile (on occasion), it is possible to involve in agricultural production. These are loess, loess – like loams, their mix with other soils, and also grey-green clay and red-brown clay on which the farmers receive high and stable yield of multicomponent grass mixtures. But in any case, the indicator of the mark estimation decreases owing to mass losses of humus horizon, its impoverishment, reduction of capacity of the layer of fertile chernozem, unsatisfactory carrying out of amelioration operations and chemical kinds of land improvement. These lacks harm to use of recultivated lands in an agricultural production at that level on which they were used earlier. It is established, that recultivated lands as the material substance, are capable to perceive additional investments of work and means. Their fertility is an objective ecological and economical category, which is formed as result of interaction of properties of the created lands, productive forces and industrial relations.
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